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Netter's atlas of human anatomy [5th Edition]. hamzeh Alshare. 1 / Head and Neck page 1 1 Topographic Surface Anatomy STUDY AIMS At the end of your. Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank H. Netter - ISBN Please note: eBooks do not come with access codes, CDs/DVDs, workbooks, and other. Atlas of Human Anatomy: with Student Consult Access, (Netter Basic Science) 5th and 6TH Editions. Atlas of Human Anatomy uses Frank H. Netter, MD's.
It is also a site where pharyngeal tumors can grow undetected for a period of time. Aggregations of lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx are called adenoids. They can become enlarged in children, causing obstruction of the nasopharynx and forcing the child to breathe through the mouth.
Thyroid Gland and Larynx Larynx: Apex at superior end b. Vocal process projects anteriorly c. Muscular process projects laterally Apex: Corniculate cartilage sits atop; attaches to aryepiglottic fold Vocal process: Fix hyoid or elevate hyoid bone and larynx Stylohyoid Digastric Mylohyoid Stylopharyngeus-elevates hyoid bone and larynx Intrinsic muscles Alter length and tension of vocal cords Alter rima glottides Adductors Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles Transverse arytenoids Abductors: Recurrent laryngeal nerve to all intrinsic muscles except cricothyroid External laryngeal nerve to cricothyroid Thyroid Gland page 47 page 48 H-shaped endocrine gland Produces two hormones Thyroid hormone-controls metabolic rate Calcitonin-controls calcium metabolism Overlies anterior and lateral surface trachea Enclosed in thin fibrous capsule with septa into gland Surrounded by pretracheal fascia therefore moves on swallowing Two lateral lobes linked by isthmus Lobes extend from second to fifth tracheal ring Isthmus lies at third tracheal ring Occasionally a pyramidal lobe extends superiorly from isthmus on left side Anatomic relationships Anteriorly: Hyperthyroidism with diffuse goiter Graves' disease Most commons cause of hyperthyroidism in patients younger than 40 years.
Excess synthesis and release of thyroid hormone T3 and T4 result in thyrotoxicosis, Thyrotoxicosis upregulates tissue metabolism and leads to symptoms indicating increased metabolism. Mnemonics Memory Aids Table I Cartilages of the Larynx Four cartilages in the larynx: TEAC is a brand name of a home stereo.
Associate the TEAC sound with the vocal cords and you can make a connection. Orbit and Contents Bony Orbit Cavity containing and protecting five sixths of eyeball, associated muscles, nerves, and vessels. Opening is protected by a thin moveable fold: Eyelids Two moveable folds of skin that cover the eye anteriorly Protect the eye from injury and excessive light and keep the corneas moist.
Eyelids separated by an elliptical opening, the palpebral fissure. Covered by thin skin externally and palpebral conjunctive internally Palpebral conjunctive continuous with bulbar conjunctive of eyeball Lines of reflection of palpebral conjunctiva onto eyeball are deep recesses: Lubricates edge of eyelids to prevent then from sticking together b. Barrier for lacrimal fluid Medial palpebral ligaments a. Attach tarsal plates to medial margin of orbit b.
Orbicularis oculi attaches to this ligament Lateral palpebral ligaments attach tarsal plates to lateral margin of orbit Orbital septum from tarsal plates to margins of orbit, continuous with periosteum of bony orbit Skin around the eyes devoid of hair except for eyelashes Are arranged in double or triple rows on the free edges of the eyelids Ciliary glands associated with eyelashes: Larger orbital b.
Smaller palpebral c. Covers posterior five sixths of eyeball b. Visible through conjunctiva is the white of the eye c.
Pierced posteriorly by optic nerve Cornea a. Transparent part of fibrous coat b. Transmits light Middle vascular layer Choroid a. Outer pigmented layer b. Inner vascular layer c. Lies between sclera and retina d. Lines most of sclera e. Terminates anteriorly as ciliary body Ciliary body a.
Connects choroid with iris b. Contains smooth muscle that alters the shape of lens c. Folds on internal surface ciliary processes produce aqueous humor and attach to suspensory ligament of lens Iris a. Pigmented diaphragm with central aperture: Contains smooth muscle that alters the size of the pupil to regulate the amount of light entering the eye c. Radial fibers of the dilator pupillae open the pupil d. Circular fibers of the sphincter pupillae close the pupil Inner retinal layer Consists of three parts Optic part 1 a.
Receives light b. Composed of two layers: Inner neural layer contains photosensitive cells: Continuation of pigmented layer plus a layer of supportive cells b. Cover ciliary body and posterior surface of retina Fundus a. Is posterior part of eye b.
Small oval area of retina b. Contains concentration of photoreceptive cones for sharpness of vision c. Contains aqueous humor Posterior chamber a. Between iris pupil anteriorly and lens and ciliary body posteriorly b. Contains aqueous humor Vitreous chamber a. Between lens and ciliary body anteriorly and retina posteriorly b.
Lie in same horizontal plane b. Rotate eyeball laterally and medially, respectively Superior and inferior rectus 2 a. Lie in same vertical plane b. Pull eyeball superiorly and inferiorly, respectively Inferior oblique a. Works with superior rectus b. Pulls eyeball superiorly and laterally Superior oblique a. Works with inferior rectus b. Pulls eyeball inferiorly and laterally Sheathed by reflection of fascial sheath around eyeball Tenon's capsule Medial and lateral check ligaments a.
Triangular expansions of sheath of medial and lateral rectus muscles b. Attached to lacrimal and zygomatic bones c. Limit abduction and adduction Suspensory ligament a. Union of check ligaments with fascia of inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles b. Branch of ophthalmic b. Runs within dural sheath of optic nerve c. Emerges at optic disc and branches over retina Posterior ciliary arteries a.
Branches of ophthalmic b. Six short to choroid c. Two long to ciliary plexus Anterior ciliary a. From muscular branches of ophthalmic b. It can be difficult to test each eye muscle individually.
Ageneralist, however, can gain a general idea of extraocular muscle or nerve impairment by checking the ability of individual muscles to elevate or depress the globe with the eye abducted or adducted, thereby aligning the globe with the pull line of contraction of the muscle Ask patient to "Follow my finger with just your eyes" and move your finger in the form of the letter H.
Superior rectus is tested by moving your finger superiorly and medially to the eye to counteract the interaction of the inferior oblique a. Inferior rectus is tested by moving your finger inferiorly and medially to the eye to counteract the interaction of the superior oblique b.
The medial and lateral rectus muscles are tested by moving your finder medially and laterally to the eye. The inferior oblique is tested by moving your finger superiorly and laterally to the eye d. The inferior oblique is tested by moving your finger inferiorly and laterally to the eye. Remember that because all the muscles are involved in the continuous movement of the eye, it is difficult to isolate the action of just one with absolute clinical certainty via this test.
Clinical Points Cataract Most common clinical condition of the eye worldwide Involves opacification or cloudiness of the lens Risk factors include: Open angle-develops gradually with blocking of canal of Schlemm or obstruction of angle b.
Closed angle-occurs rapidly when iris and lens block passage of aqueous humor through pupil Clinical Points Orbital "blow-out" Fractures Medial and inferior walls of orbit are very thin, so a blow to the eye can fracture the orbit Indirect trauma that displaces walls is called a "blow-out" fracture Fractures of medial wall may involve ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses Fracture of the floor may involved the maxillary sinus Fractures can result in intraorbital bleeding Blood puts pressure on eyeball, causing exophthalmos Blood and orbital structures can herniate into maxillary sinus Clinical Points page 58 page 59 Conjunctivitis Common condition often referred to as "pink eye" An inflammation of the conjunctiva Symptoms include redness, irritation, and watering of the eyes and sometimes discharge and itching Can be triggered by infection a.
Highly contagious b. Caused by bacteria or viruses c. Sexually transmitted diseases STDs , such as gonorrhoea and chlamydia, can cause it d. Viral conjunctivitis is common with several viral infections and can arise as a result of or during a common cold or flu Can be triggered by allergies a. More freqently occurs in children with other allergic conditions, e.
Typically affects both eyes at the same time Can be triggered by an external irritant a. Can be caused by pollutants such as traffic fumes, smoke b. Ear Ear Is divided into three parts External ear Auricle External acoustic meatus Middle ear Tympanic cavity and its contents Epitympanic recess Inner ear Vestibulocochlear organ Membranous labyrinth Bony labyrinth Functions are equilibrium balance and hearing External Ear page 60 page 61 Auricle or pinna Skin-covered elastic cartilage Collects sound and directs it to external auditory meatus Features Deep depression: Fenestra cochlea or round window Anterior wall Separates tympanic cavity from carotid canal Superiorly has opening of auditory tube and canal for tensor tympani Posterior wall Superiorly, aditus opening to mastoid antrum, connecting to mastoid air cells Between posterior wall and aditus, prominence of canal of facial nerve Pyramidal eminence a.
Tiny cone-shaped prominence b. Mucous membrane of tympanic cavity b. Mastoid antrum c. Mastoid air cells d. Spiral canal b. Bony core, the modiolus Canal spirals around modiolus Basal turn forms promontory of medial wall of tympanic cavity At basal turn, bony labyrinth communicates with subarachnoid space above jugular foramen via cochlear aqueduct Vestibule Small oval chamber Contains membranous utricle and saccule Oval window is on lateral wall Continuous with a.
Cochlea anteriorly b. Semicircular canals posteriorly Communicates with posterior cranial fossa via aqueduct of vestibule a. Contains membranous endolymphatic duct Semicircular canals Anterior, posterior, and lateral Set at right angles to each other in three planes Lie posterosuperior to vestibule Each opens into vestibule Swelling at one end of each canal: Has specialized area of sensory epithelium: Hairs respond to tilting of head and linear acceleration and deceleration Saccule a.
Communicates with utricle b. Continuous with cochlear duct c. Contains macula, identical in structure and function to that of utricle Semicircular ducts a. Within semicircular canals b.
Each has ampulla at one end c. Ampullary crest in each ampulla senses movement of endolymph in plane of duct d. Detect rotational tilting movements of head Cochlear labyrinth Spiral ligament suspends cochlear duct from external wall of spiral canal Cochlear duct a. Triangular in shape b. Filled with endolymph c. Spans spiral canal, dividing it into two channels, each filled with perilymph d. Two channels: Found on basilar membrane b. Covered by gelatinous tectorial membrane c.
Contains hair cells-tips embedded in tectorial membrane d. Meninges and Brain Brain [Plate , Cerebrum: Medial Views] page 66 page 67 Is composed of six regions for purposes of description 1 Cerebral hemispheres cerebrum Largest part of brain Occupy anterior and middle cranial fossae Two, separated by longitudinal cerebral fissure Connected by transverse fiber bundle at base of longitudinal fissure: Frontal lobe: Involved in higher mental function Contains speech and language centers Parietal lobe: Initiates movement Involved in perception Temporal lobe: Involved in memory, hearing, and speech Occipital lobe: Contains visual cortex Each lobe marked by folds gyri and grooves sulci 2 Diencephalon Composed of Epithalamus Thalamus Hypothalamus Surrounds third ventricle of brain between right and left halves 3 Midbrain mesencephalon At junction of middle and posterior cranial fossae Contains narrow canal: Drains cerebral veins Confluence of sinuses sagittal sinus 2.
Contains arachnoid villi and granulations for reabsorption CSF Inferior sagittal Lower free margin falx cerebri Joins great cerebral vein sinus forming straight sinus Straight sinus Junction falx cerebri and Formed by union great cerebral vein with inferior sagittal Confluence of sinuses tentorium cerebelli sinus Transverse Lateral margin tentorium 1.
Passes laterally from confluence of sinuses Sigmoid sinus sinus cerebelli 2. Left is usually larger Sigmoid sinus S-shaped course in temporal Continuation transverse sinus Internal jugular vein and occipital bones Cavernous Superior surface of body of 1. Receives superior and inferior ophthalmic and Superior and inferior sinus sphenoid, lateral to sella superficial middle cerebral veins and sphenoparietal petrosal sinuses turcica sinus 2.
Cranial and Cervical Nerves Cranial Nerves 12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain, and they are identified both by their names and by Roman numerals I through XII. The cranial nerves are somewhat unique and can contain multiple functional components: CN V has three divisions: V1 and V2 are sensory, and V3 is both motor to skeletal muscle and sensory.
The following table summarizes the types of fibers in each cranial nerve and where each passes through the cranium: Cranial nerves emerge through foramina or fissures in the cranium Twelve pairs Numbered in order of origin from the brain and brain stem, rostral to caudal Contain one or more of six different types of fibers Motor fibers to voluntary muscles Somatic motor fibers to striated muscles 1 a. Orbit b.
Tongue c. Neck sternocleidomastoid and trapezius Branchial motor or special visceral efferent fibers to striated muscles derived from pharyngeal arches example: Carry sensation from viscera b. Thyrohyoid muscle b. Omohyoid b. Sternohyoid c.
Usually one-sided and can affect a division of CN V, usually the mandibular, maxillary nerve. Pain can be triggered by touching a sensitive area "trigger point" The cause is not usually known Treatment is directed to controlling the pain.
Ocular Nerve Palsy Alesion of the oculomotor nerve will paralyze all extraocular muscles except the lateral rectus and the superior oblique. This leads to: Ptosis-drooping of the eyelid levator palpebrae superioris No constriction of the pupil in response to light sphincter pupillae Dilation of the pupil unopposed dilator pupillae Eyeball abducted and depressed "down and out" unopposed lateral rectus and superior oblique No accommodation of the lens for near vision ciliary muscle page 75 page 76 Mnemonics Memory Aid Names of the Cranial Nerves "On Old Olympus Towering Tops A Few Virile Germans Viewed Ample Of Hops" I: On - Olfactory II: Old - Ophthalmic III: Olympus - Oculomotor IV: Towering - Trochlear V: Tops - Trigeminal VI: A - Abducent VII: Virile - Vestibulocochlear IX: Germans - Glossopharyngeal X: Viewed - Vagus XI: Ample - Accessory XII: Olfactory Sensory II: Optic Sensor III: Oculomotor Motor IV: Trochlear Motor V: Trigeminal Both VI: Abducent Motor VII: Vestibulocochlear Sensory IX: Glossopharyngeal Both X: Vagus Both XI: Accessory Motor XII: Ascends on pharynx b.
Send branches to pharynx, prevertebral muscles, middle ear, and cranial meninges Superior thyroid a. Gives rise to superior laryngeal artery supplying larynx Lingual a. Passes deep to hypoglossal nerve, stylohyoid muscle, and posterior belly of digastric b. Disappears beneath hyoglossus muscle and becomes deep lingual and sublingual arteries Facial a. Branches to tonsil, palate, and submandibular gland b.
Hooks around middle of mandible and enters face Occipital a. Passes deep to posterior belly of the digastric b. Grooves base of skull c. Supplies posterior scalp Posterior auricular a. Passes posteriorly between external acoustic meatus and mastoid process b. Supplies muscles of region, parotid gland, facial nerve, auricle, and scalp Maxillary a. Larger of two terminal branches b. Branches supply external acoustic meatus, tympanic membrane, dura mater and calvaria, mandible, gingivae and teeth, temporal pterygoid, masseter, and buccinator muscles Superficial temporal a.
Smaller terminal branch b. Supplies temporal region of scalp Carotid Branch Course and Structures Supplied Superior thyroid Supplies thyroid gland, larynx, and infrahyoid muscles Ascending pharyngeal Supplies pharyngeal region, middle ear, meninges, and prevertebral muscles Lingual Passes deep to hyoglossus muscle to supply the tongue Facial Courses over the mandible and supplies the face Occipital Supplies SCM and anastomoses with costocervical trunk Posterior auricular Supplies region posterior to ear Maxillary Passes into infratemporal fossa described later Superficial temporal Supplies face, temporalis muscle, and lateral scalp page 79 page 80 Subclavian artery Branch of aortic arch on the left From brachiocephalic trunk on the right Enters neck between anterior and posterior scalene muscles Supplies upper limbs, neck and brain Divided for descriptive purposes into 3 parts, in relation to the anterior scalene muscle First part a.
Medial to the anterior scalene b. Has three branches Second part a. Posterior to the anterior scalene b. Has one branch Third part a. Lateral to anterior scalene b. Has one branch Subclavian Branch Course Part 1 Vertebral Ascends through C6-C1 transverse foramina and enters foramen magnum Internal thoracic Descends parasternally to anastomose with superior epigastric artery Thyrocervical trunk Gives rise to inferior thyroid, transverse cervical, and suprascapular arteries Part 2 Costocervical trunk Gives rise to deep cervical and superior intercostal arteries Part 3 Dorsal scapular Is inconstant; may also arise from transverse cervical artery Venous drainage Superficial veins External jugular vein EJV Drains most of scalp and side of face Formed at angle of mandible by union of retromandibular vein with posterior auricular vein Enters posterior triangle and pierces fascia of its roof Descends to terminate in subclavian vein Receives a.
Transverse cervical vein b. Suprascapular vein c. Back and Spinal Cord-Muscles and Nerves. Muscles that are readily visible are trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and teres major.
Performed for retrieval of cerebrospinal fluid CSF from the lumbar spinal cistern. The patient is placed in the left decubitus position, flexed in the fetal posture with the supracristal line vertical. Mnemonics Memory Aids Lumbar puncture: To keep the cord alive, keep the needle between L3 and L5! No body or spinous process; articulates with occipital condyles via paired lateral masses and with the axis via the superior articular facets and dens of the axis; groove on superior aspect of the posterior arch for vertebral arteries and dorsal ramus of C1 C2 Axis: Dens odontoid process , large superior articular facets for C1 C3-C5: Short bifid spinous processes anterior tubercle of C6 is the carotid tubercle, which the carotid artery can be compressed against to control bleeding C Atypical-have some features of cervical vertebrae T5-T8: Typical T9-T Sacral hiatus termination of sacral canal that contains filum terminale Median crest: Thorax Sacroiliac SI joints.
Synovial joints see: The primary curvatures of the vertebral column in the thoracic and sacral regions develop during the fetal period and are caused by differences in height between the anterior and posterior aspects of the vertebrae. The secondary curvatures are mainly a result of anterior-posterior differences in IV disc thickness. The cervical curvature is acquired when the infant begins to lift its head, and the lumbar curvature when the infant begins to walk.
Abnormal curvatures: Kyphosis is an increased thoracic curvature, commonly seen in the elderly "Dowager hump".
It is usually caused by osteoporosis, resulting in anterior vertebral erosion or a compression fracture.
An excessive lumbar curvature is termed a lordosis and is seen in association with weak trunk muscles, pregnancy, and obesity. Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae. The lumbosacral angle is created between the long axes of the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum.
It is primarily because of the anterior thickness of the L5 body. As the line of body weight passes anterior to the SI joints, anterior displacement of L5 over S1 may occur spondylolisthesis , applying pressure to the spinal nerves of the cauda equina. Thoracic are heart-shaped since your heart is in your thorax Lumbar are kidney-bean shaped as the kidneys are in the lumbar area Craniovertebral joints: Cross Sections] Meninges Dura mater: Tough fibroelastic membrane Is continuous with the inner meningeal layer of the cranial dura Attached to the margins of the foramen magnum and posterior longitudinal ligament Separated by the epidural space from vertebral periosteum Extends as a sac from the margin of the foremen magnum to the level of S2 Pierced by spinal nerves Anchored to the coccyx by the external filum terminale Forms dural root sleeves covering the spinal nerves before fusing with the epineurium Arachnoid mater: Delicate, avascular, fibroelastic membrane lining dural sac Opposed held to inner surface to dura by CSF pressure Is external to the subarachnoid space, between arachnoid and pia, containing CSF, traversed by strands of connective tissue arachnoid trabeculae Contains the lumbar cistern, an enlargement of subarachnoid space between L2 end of spinal cord and S2 end of dural sac Pia mater: Highly vascular innermost layer covering roots of spinal nerves Continues as the filum terminale Suspends the spinal cord within the dural sac by lateral extensions between the anterior and posterior roots, called denticulate ligaments Dermatomes: Usually 3 anterior and 3 posterior longitudinal spinal veins with tributaries from the posterior medullary and radicular veins.
They drain into the valveless vertebral venous plexus. Vertebral venous plexus is continuous with the cranial dural venous sinuses and contains no valves Internal vertebral plexus lying in the extradural space drains the spinal cord External vertebral plexus connects with azygos vein, superior and inferior vena cavae Autonomic Nervous System ANS page 91 page 92 Sympathetic NS: In the fetus, the spinal cord extends down to the sacral vertebrae.
Anaesthetic injected into epidural space of the sacral canal either via the sacral hiatus caudal epidural using the sacral corneae as landmarks, or via the posterior sacral foramina transsacral epidural. The anesthetic solution spreads superiorly to act on spinal nerves S2-Co.
The height to which the anesthetic ascends is affected by the amount of solution injected and the position of the patient. Spinal block: Introduction of an anesthetic directly into the CSF in the subarachnoid space utilizing a lumbar puncture see above.
Subsequent leakage of CSF may cause a headache in some individuals. Mnemonics Memory Aids Dermatomes: Muscles and Nerves The muscles of the back are divided into the extrinsic muscles that connect the upper limb to the trunk and the intrinsic deep or true muscles that specifically act on the vertebral column to produce movements and maintain posture. Extrinsic muscles of the back Superficial: Trapezius, latissimus dorsi, levator scapulae, rhomboid minor and major Intermediate: Serratus posterior superior and posterior inferior muscles of respiration [Plate , Muscles of Back: Superficial Layers] Muscle Proximal Attachment Origin Distal Attachment Innervation Main Actions Insertion Trapezius Superior nuchal line, external occipital Lateral third of Accessory nerve Elevates, retracts, and rotates protuberance, nuchal ligament, and clavicle, acromion, cranial nerve XI and scapula; lower fibers depress spinous processes of C7-T12 and spine of C3-C4 proprioception scapula scapula Latissimus Spinous processes of T7-T12, Humerus Thoracodorsal nerve Extends, adducts, and dorsi thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and intertubercular C6-C8 medially rotates humerus last ribs sulcus Levator Transverse processes of C1-C4 Medial border of C3-C4 and dorsal Elevates scapula and tilts scapulae scapula scapular C5 nerve glenoid cavity inferiorly Rhomboid Minor: Intermediate Layers] Superficial: Drains to the anterior, lateral, and deep cervical nodes Trunk: Bounded by rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior and obliquus capitis inferior, floor-atlantooccipital membrane, roof-semispinalis capitis Deep Layer Muscle Proximal Attachment Distal Attachment Innervation Main Actions Origin Insertion Rectus capitis posterior Spine of axis Lateral inferior nuchal Suboccipital nerve Extends head and rotates to major line C1 same side Rectus capitis posterior Tubercle of posterior arch Median inferior nuchal Suboccipital nerve Extends head minor of atlas line C1 Obliquus capitis Transverse process of Occipital bone Suboccipital nerve Extend head and bend it laterally superior atlas C1 Obliquus capitis inferior Spine of axis Atlas transverse Suboccipital nerve Rotates atlas to turn face to process C1 same side Branches of spinal nerves Ventral rami innervate the muscles and overlying skin of the anterior thoracic, abdominal and pelvic wall and contribute to Cervical plexus [C1-C4] see: Head and Neck Brachial plexus [C5-T1] see: Upper Limb Thoracic intercostal nerves see also: Thorax Lumbar plexus [TL4] see: Lower Limb Dorsal rami C1: Suboccipital nerve-pierces the atlantooccipital membrane and is motor to the suboccipital muscles C2: Avery common, usually self-limiting complaint, often affecting the lumbar region "low back pain".
Radiation to back of the thigh and into the leg sciatica or focal neurology suggests radiculopathy. Back strain: Stretching and microscopic tearing of muscle fibres or ligaments, often because of a sport-related injury. The muscles subsequently go into spasm as a protective response causing pain and interfering with function. This is a common cause of low back pain.
Frequently caused by impacts from the rear in motor vehicle accidents. May cause herniation of the IV disc and subsequent radiculopathy. Mnemonics Memory Aids Deep back muscles: The thoracic cage protects the contents of the thorax, whereas the muscles assist in breathing.
It is important to identify and count ribs as they form key landmarks to the positions of the internal organs. In a fit muscular person one can identify a number of landmarks: Jugular suprasternal notch: Anterior to the T5 through T9 vertebrae and the right border of the heart Nipple: Anterior to the 4th intercostal space in males and the dome of the right hemidiaphragm; sits on the pectoralis major muscle Xiphoid process: At the level of the T10 vertebra The costal margins: Comprises the 7th through 10th costal cartilages On yourself, palpate the following: The sternoclavicular joints, lateral to the jugular notch The sternum and its parts: Midaxillary lines are perpendicular lines through the apex of the axilla on both sides Cephalic vein can be seen in some subjects lying in the deltopectoral groove between the deltoid and pectoralis major muscles.
This is called a median sternotomy. Other exclusions are noted. These syndromes are due to abnormalities of In a small pilot study that screened 45 Ohio middle school students for cardiovascular risk factors, a third of the children had abnormal levels of cholesterol or blood sugar, and two kids were found to have undiagnosed diabetes.
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Netter was born in New York City in During his student years, Dr. He continued illustrating as a sideline after establishing a surgical practice in , but he ultimately opted to give up his practice in favor of a full-time commitment to art.
This year partnership resulted in the production of the extraordinary collection of medical art so familiar to physicians and other medical professionals worldwide. In , Elsevier Inc. There are now over 50 publications featuring the art of Dr. Netter available through Elsevier Inc. The book Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations, which includes the greater part of the more than 20, paintings created by Dr. Netter, became and remains one of the most famous medical works ever published.
The Netter Atlas of Human Anatomy, first published in , presents the anatomic paintings from the Netter Collection. Now translated into 16 languages, it is the anatomy atlas of choice among medical and health professions students the world over.
The Netter illustrations are appreciated not only for their aesthetic qualities, but, more importantly, for their intellectual content. As Dr. No matter how beautifully painted, how delicately and subtly rendered a subject may be, it is of little value as a medical illustration if it does not serve to make clear some medical point.